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Theoretical and Applied Economics
No. 2 / 2023 (635), Summer

Implications of migration policies on reducing income inequalities and poverty in Europe

Monica BURESCU MIHĂILA
West University of Timișoara, Romania
Paula Roxana CUCOȘ
West University of Timișoara, Romania

Abstract. Migration is an issue of international interest, with major repercussions on all countries of the world. Its current extent and dynamics require concerted measures from the states for the most effective integration of migrants into the host societies in order to increase their well-being and quality of life. The 2030 Agenda outlines several directions of action related to the phenomenon of migration, objective 10 of reducing inequalities, directly aiming, as one of the proposed targets for 2030, to facilitate orderly, safe, regular and responsible migration and mobility of people, including by putting in implementing planned and well-managed migration policies. In this analysis, we aimed to evaluate to what extent migration policies can successfully contribute to reducing income inequalities, as well as the risk of poverty among the migrant population in the current period, in 30 European countries. Favorable implications for reducing inequalities in the distribution of income across the population result from policies on permanent residence and potentially family reunification. Labor mobility policies still impose restrictive requirements, which makes it difficult for workers, especially migrants, to access jobs corresponding to their skills. Also, the difficult conditions for obtaining citizenship in many countries are an unfavorable factor in reducing income inequalities. Opening up for the wider integration of the population, including migrants, into the political life of society can have a positive impact. Labor market integration policies for immigrants can lead to a reduction in the level of poverty among the migrant population as a whole, the relationship being a clear and robust one, whatever other influences are considered. Particular attention should be paid to the conditions for obtaining residence, citizenship and voting, which are still quite fluctuating and differentiated between countries.

Keywords: migration policies, income inequality, Gini coefficient, inter-quintile report, poverty risk.

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