HomeDespre ECTAEventsPolitica editorialaTrimite un articolParteneri / link-uri utileArchiveAbonamentContact

ISSN 1841-8678   (print)
ISSN 1844-0029   (online)


Archive ECTAP

Note: for the period 1994-2003 the archive of the magazine will not be available online

Supplements ECTAP

If you cannot open the pdf file you need Adobe Reader.
download Adobe Reader

Creative Commons License

Theoretical and Applied Economics
No. 1 / 2020 (622), Spring

Intellectual property rights, human capital and types of entrepreneurship in emerging and developing countries

Kamilia LOUKIL
Faculty of Economics and Management, University of Sfax, Tunisia

Abstract. This study examines the single and combined effects of intellectual property rights (IPR) and human capital on the types of entrepreneurship in emerging and developing countries. For this purpose, we use the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor data for the entrepreneurial activity, while IPR are assessed based on the IPR index of World Economic Forum and human capital is measured by the gross enrollment ratio for secondary school. Linear regressions are applied on data for 15 countries during the period 2009-2013. Findings show that improvement of intellectual property rights has no influence on opportunity driven entrepreneurship and affects negatively necessity driven entrepreneurship. Furthermore, the improvement of the education level allows to increase opportunity driven entrepreneurship in emerging and developing countries. However, it does not allow to increase necessity entrepreneurship. Moreover, countries with higher human capital level benefit from the enhancement of the IPR system more than countries with lower human capital. In summary, our study recognizes the complementary role of intellectual property rights and human capital in increasing high quality entrepreneurship. We conclude that both intellectual property rights and human capital are effective tools of industrial policy in emerging and developing countries.

Keywords: Opportunity Driven Entrepreneurship, Necessity Driven Entrepreneurship, intellectual property rights, human capital, emerging and developing countries.

Download the full article:  


Open acces




The Economicity. The Epistemic Landscape, Marin Dinu, 2016


ISSN 1841-8678 (ediția print) / ISSN 1844-0029 (ediția online)
© Copyright Asociația Generală a Economiștilor din România / Editura Economică
Redacția: Oficiul poștal 18, Ghișeul 3 - Căsuța poștală 31, București 014820, E-mail:

© 1994-2024 Theoretical and Applied Economics